5 Glossaries

Save Time versus endlessly searching the internet! Explore our 5 in-depth detailed categories. Click on “Learn More”buttons shown under each definition to link to 3rd party sites and videos.

Please explore our category The Top 20 Autism Behavioral Medications. (Your OYA test results provide you and your physicians with actionable information highlighting each one of these most prescribed medications)


Autism


  • ABA (Applied Behavioral Analysis)

    ABA (Applied Behavioral Analysis) This evidence based method is used to treat children with Autism spectrum disorders in which environmental stimuli are manipulated in order to produce a desired response. By breaking complex skills into small steps, children can systemically learn to respond and behave in socially appropriate ways. ABA therapy is normally paid by insurance in Autism mandated states.

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    ABA (Applied Behavioral Analysis)
  • Adaptive Behavior

    Adaptive Behavior The ability to adjust to new experiences, interact with new people and participate in new activities and experiences.

    Watch the following VIDEO for learning more about Adaptive Behavior and Autism

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    Adaptive Behavior
  • Adaptive Equipment

    Adaptive equipment Furniture and other positioning support that can be used to help a child maintain comfortable and appropriate posture and functioning when sitting, standing or moving.

    There are many kinds of Adaptive Equipment to help benefit those with Autism. Click here for more information and resources.

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    Adaptive Equipment
  • Amphetamines

    Amphetamines drugs are commonly used to stimulate children and treat those with Autism. A compound C9H13N or one of its derivatives (as dextroamphetamine or methamphetamine) is frequently abused as a stimulant of the central nervous system but used clinically as the sulfate or hydrochloride salt to treat hyperactive children; the symptoms of narcolepsy and as a short-term appetite suppressant in dieting. Amphetamines often cause unwanted side effects.

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    Amphetamines
  • Anecdotal Evidence

    Anecdotal Evidence-term that describes evidence that is not based on scientific research. Often anecdotal evidence takes the form of testimonials or personal accounts and because it is not scientifically validated, it has a large chance of being untrue.

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    Anecdotal Evidence
  • Anticonvulsant

    Anticonvulsant refers to medications used to control seizures. Epilepsy and other similar conditions are 30% to 60% co-morbid for those with Autism.

    Watch the Video by clicking on “Learn More”

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    Anticonvulsant
  • Antipsychotic Drugs

    Antipsychotic Drugs help counteract or reverse “psychosis”, a disturbance in thought processing and behavior leading to a loss of contact with reality. Antipsychotics are commonly used to treat these type of symptoms for individuals with an Autism diagnosis.

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    Antipsychotic Drugs
  • Anxiety

    Anxiety

    Research suggests that around 30 percent of those affected by ASD also have an anxiety disorder. These include social phobia, separation anxiety, panic disorder and specific phobias – for instance, of spiders or loud noise.

    Anxiety is a real difficulty for many people on the autism spectrum, including those with Asperger syndrome. It can affect a person psychologically and physically. Understanding emotions can be very difficult. Anxiety can affect both the mind and the body, and produce a range of symptoms. The psychological and physical symptoms of anxiety are closely linked and can lead to a vicious cycle that can be difficult to break. The psychological symptoms of anxiety can include: easily losing patience; difficulty concentrating; thinking constantly about the worst outcome; difficulty sleeping; depression; and becoming pre-occupied or obsessive about one subject.

    Physical symptoms of Anxiety may include: excessive thirst; upset stomach; loose bowel movements; frequent urination; increase heart rates; muscle aches; headaches; dizziness; nervousness; temper tantrums; and tremors.

    Behavioral medications are frequently used to help manage anxiety, a symptom for some diagnosed with Autism.

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    Anxiety
  • Apraxia

    Apraxia- neurological condition characterized by loss or absence of the ability to perform activities that a person is physically able and willing to do. (Apraxia is also known as “Dyspraxia”)

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    Apraxia
  • Articulation

    Articulation The ability to produce speech sounds. Children with Autism often need speech pathologists and others to help them with their language and hearing skills.

    Click on “Learn More” for more information & to see more resources about “Articulation” from ASHA.org

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    Articulation
  • Asperger's Syndrome

    Asperger’s Syndrome An Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) characterized by average to above-average cognitive function, deficits in communication and social language (pragmatics) and, sometimes, a limited range of interests or obsessive interest in a particular topic, such as weather, a movie or TV character. Asperger’s diagnosis affects more girls and is usually harder to diagnose than in boys. The girls’ diagnosis normally does not occur until preteens and teenagers. Treatments normally include counseling and teaching of social skills.

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    Asperger's Syndrome
  • Assistive and Augmentative Communications (AAC)

    Assistive and Augmentative Communications (AAC) Additional materials, supports, apple ipads, laptops, and other mobile devices have proven to be beneficial to help people with AUTISM communicate when their spoken language is not sufficient for their needs.

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    Assistive and Augmentative Communications (AAC)
  • Assistive Technology

    Assistive Technology Electronic as well as non-electronic materials, equipment and devices designed to help people with disabilities such as AUTISM play, learn, communicate, move around and carry out activities of daily living at home, at school, and in the community.

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    Assistive Technology
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) The diagnostic term used to describe people who have excessive difficulty in concentrating and focusing, extreme distractibility or over activity, sometimes including disruptive behavior or aggression. The behavior of those diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) may escalate when changes occur.

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    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • Atypical Autism

    Atypical Autism-Another term for PDD-NOS. (watch this video)

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    Atypical Autism
  • Auditory Memory

    Auditory memory

    Involves the skills of attending, listing, processing, storing and recalling. The ability to receive information presented orally, and to interpret, store, and retrieve it is critical to learning. Children with auditory memory weakness only pick up bits and pieces. Speech pathologist help children often with auditory memory including those with AUTISM. The ability to receive information presented orally, and to interpret, store, and retrieve it.

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    Auditory Memory
  • Autism

    Autism (ASD) A condition marked by developmental delay in social skills, language, and behavior which is often present in children with varying degrees of severity.

    Today approximately 1 out of every 50 children are being diagnosed with Autism. Diagnosis can be made as early as 18 months of age, however, the average age of diagnosis is currently made at 5 1/2 yrs old. The earlier the diagnosis, the more successful treatments are realized. No two children are alike with their symptoms and skills. Autism affects everyone differently.

    There is no predictive tests for Autism. Behavioral Therapies (ABA) and pharmaceutical drug treatments are primarily used along with other evidenced-based clinical treatments to help those diagnosed with Autism. **Autism is often referred to as living on the Autism Spectrum Disorder or ASD.

    Watch this very informative TEDMED VIDEO

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    Autism
  • Autism Speaks

    Autism Speaks The non profit Autism organization was established in 2005. Autism Speaks’ commitment is to support and provide solutions for Autism Spectrum families.

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    Autism Speaks
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) Encompasses the following five disorders: Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Syndrome, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, Rett’s Disorder, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Learn much more about ASD and Autism by clicking here.

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    Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • Backward Chaining

    Backward Chaining- often used in Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). Backward Chaining is a teaching methodology that refers to breaking down the various steps in a task (thereby creating a “Task Analysis”), and then teaching those steps in the reverse order.

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    Backward Chaining
  • Baseline

    Baseline The congenital level of function by a child before instruction is introduced. Measurements of those diagnosed with Autism are useful to determine clinical treatments and to track progress.

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    Baseline
  • Behavior Modification

    Behavior Modification The use of empirically demonstrated behavior change techniques aimed to improve behaviors. For those with AUTISM, ABA (Applied Behavioral Analysis) are the most evidenced-based therapies.

    Good news! Mandatory Insurance Reimbursements ($) for ABA therapies are in place in most states.

    Watch this helpful Behavioral Modification Video

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    Behavior Modification
  • Behavioral Therapy

    Behavioral Therapy The systematic application of behavioral theory, including the use of conditioning and reinforcements, in the treatment of a disorder. Behavioral therapy is common treatment for those diagnosed with the Autism Spectrum Disorder.

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    Behavioral Therapy
  • Bipolar

    Bipolar

    Bipolar disorder was once commonly called “manic-depression”. It involves episodes of abnormally high-energy alternating with depression over a period of time. A “manic episode” is characterized by a variety of symptoms, including feeling elated, irritable, angry, or fluctuating between happy and irritable throughout the day.

    Among individuals with Autism, the symptoms of bipolar disorder commonly include abrupt increases in “pressured speech” (rapid, loud and virtually nonstop talking), pacing, impulsivity, irritability and insomnia. Some individuals with bipolar disorder alternate between mania and depression. Others never or seldom experience depression. In other words, they exhibit manic behaviors alternating with calmer, “normal” periods.

    Studies have found that as many as 27 percent of those with autism may have bipolar disorder. By contrast, its’ prevalence in the general population is around 4 percent. Behavioral medications are often prescribed to help manage bipolar symptoms. The atypical antipsychotics risperidone and aripiprazole are both FDA-approved to treat irritability in children with autism age 6 or older. They may help bipolar symptoms; however, both medicines tend to produce significant weight gain and diabetes risk. WATCH THE VIDEO

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    Bipolar
  • Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS)

    Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) A test developed at TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication-handicapped Children) to diagnose Autism. A child is rated in fifteen areas of ability.

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    Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS)
  • Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

    Childhood Disintegrative Disorder A rare form of pervasive developmental disorder in which normally developing children with Autism suddenly lose language and social skills after age three.

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    Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
  • Cognition

    Cognition The ability to perceive, think, reason, and analyze. Those with AUTISM often have cognitive disorders and lack some cognition skills.

    Treatments for cognition associated with AUTISM can vary but normally are addressed by ABA therapies. Parents can also be trained to help those with cognition issues.

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    Cognition
  • Cognitive Skills

    Cognitive Skills An individual’s intellectual ability or the aggregate skills of knowing and understanding behaviors, emotions, and thoughts are challenging for those with Autism.

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    Cognitive Skills
  • Comorbid (Comorbidity)

    COMORBID (Comorbidity) Children with Autism can also have other behavioral and medical conditions. These conditions show increased prevalence (chances) to occur alongside Autism. This is called ‘Comorbidity’.

    Comorbid conditions can be psychological, behavioral or brain related such as being bipolar, ADD and ADHD, epilepsy, etc.

    PLUS

    Comorbidity for those with AUTISM have more frequent occurrences of Medical Symptoms such as gastrointestinal issues, asthma, sleep disorders, diabetes, etc.

    FACT: Children and adults with Autism have a 92% higher chances of having Comorbid Medical Conditions than the general population.

    Our OnlyYOU tests address the vast majority of medications for Autism related comorbid conditions.

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    Comorbid (Comorbidity)
  • Comprehensive Evaluation

    Comprehensive Evaluation A complete assessment of a child, based on educational, psychological, social, and health status conducted by a team of professionals and complemented by information from parents and teachers.

    An Autistic diagnosis will include a comprehensive evaluation.

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    Comprehensive Evaluation
  • Congenital condition

    Congenital condition A condition existing at birth.

    AUTISM is not considered to be “Congenital”, but rather is most noticeable around 18 months of age and as a child ages and develops over time.

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    Congenital condition
  • Contraindication

    Contraindication is a specific situation in which a drug, procedure, or surgery should not be used because it may be harmful to the person. There are two types of contraindications:

    (1) Relative contraindication means that caution should be used when two drugs or procedures are used together.

    (2) Absolute contraindication means that event or substance could cause a life-threatening situation. A procedure or medicine that falls under this category must be avoided.

    Those diagnosed with ASD have comorbid and overlapping conditions. Many may be polypharmacy and cautionary methods are needed to avoid contraindication.

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    Contraindication
  • Convulsion

    Convulsion (Seizure) is the involuntary contraction and relaxation of muscles.

    People with Autism have the comorbid condition of also having Epilepsy, ranging from a prevalence rate of 30% to 50%.

    Epilepsy is the most common chronic disorder for those who experience convulsions or seizures.

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    Convulsion
  • Cue

    Cue A physical or verbal or visual gesture that prompts a person to speak, perform an activity or behave in a particular way. Physical and verbal cues are often used to enhance auditory and cognitive skills for those with Autism. Cue cards are Visual Communication tools for those on the spectrum that have limited verbal skills.

    For an example please look at the definition of PECS (Picture Exchange Communication Systems)

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    Cue
  • Depression

    Depression affects almost 20 million people, including a high percentage of those with an Autism Diagnosis.

    Depression (major depressive disorder or clinical depression) is a common but serious mood disorder. It causes severe symptoms that affect how you feel, think, and handle daily activities, such as sleeping, eating, thinking or working. To be diagnosed with depression, the symptoms must be present for at least two weeks. Depression is treatable and normally involves counselling and medications.

    Please watch this short emedtv.com Video. Note: This site has 11 other excellent videos library that fully describe Depression.

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    Depression
  • Developmental Delay

    Developmental Delay A slower rate of development in comparison to the majority of children of the same age. A diagnosis of Autism normally contains clinical treatment programs to help with developmental delay that are common with Autism.

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    Developmental Delay
  • Developmental Disability (DD)

    Developmental Disability (DD) A condition that prevents physical or cognitive development age, e.g. sitting up; saying first words. A diagnosis of Autism normally contains clinical treatment programs to help with that are common with Autism.

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    Developmental Disability (DD)
  • Developmental Milestone

    Developmental Milestone Skills such as taking a first step, smiling for the first time, and waving “bye bye” are called developmental milestones. Children reach milestones in how they play, learn, speak, act, and move (crawling, walking, etc.) It is critical to track developmental milestone for children with Autism.

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    Developmental Milestone
  • Diagnosis

    Diagnosis A diagnosis of the disorder, Autism, is identified after an in-depth comprehensive evaluation. Normally 3 to 6 healthcare professionals are utilized to test, observe and record results for anyone in full testing and diagnosis. These specialists then jointly convene, share data and observations and collaborate to finalize an ASD diagnosis. Recommendations and clinical treatment plans are then jointly developed after a positive diagnois of ASD and its symptoms.

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    Diagnosis
  • Dopamine

    Dopamine: A chemical transmitter in the brain similar to adrenaline. Dopamine affects brain processes that control movement, emotional response, and ability to experience pleasure and pain.

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    Dopamine
  • Dosage

    Dosage The size or frequency of an amount of or dose of a medicine or drug. Those on the Autism Spectrum need to pay very close attention to the doses given, especially those medications used to treat the behavioral symptoms of Autism, as many of these contain various warnings and have a high incidence of unwanted side effects. Proper pediatric dosing of medications is especially critical.

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    Dosage
  • Drug Interaction

    Situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together. This action can be synergistic (when the drug’s effect is increased) or antagonistic (when the drug’s effect is decreased) or a new effect can be produced that neither produces on its own.

    Since AUTISM behavioral clinical treatments and the comorbid medical conditions associated with Autism normally include using many types of medications, it is extremely important to understand potential drug-to-drug interactions.

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    Drug Interaction
  • Drug Metabolism

    Drug metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down and converts medication into active chemical substances so your body can react to the medicinal properties of each drug.

    The study of drug metabolism is vitally important to our understanding of the time course of drugs in the body, the structuring of dosage regimens, the pharmacology and toxicology of drug metabolites, and the interactions of multiple drug combinations. Most medications used to treat the behavioral symptoms of Autism are metabolized in the liver (CYP genes). This also often applies to many of the medications used to treat Autism’s co-morbid medical conditions.

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    Drug Metabolism
  • DSM-V Manual

    (DSM-5) is the abbreviation for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-V) is a diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA). The DSM-5 manual is the go-to resource for many practitioners when it comes to the classification and diagnosis of mental disorders. In the United States, the DSM serves as a universal authority for psychiatric diagnoses. Treatment recommendations, as well as payment by health care providers, are often determined by DSM classifications, including Autism and associated behavioral issues.

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    DSM-V Manual
  • Dyscalculia

    Dyscalculia - is difficulty in learning or comprehending arithmetic, such as difficulty in understanding numbers, learning how to manipulate numbers, and learning facts in mathematics. It is generally seen as the mathematical equivalent to dyslexia. Please visit:Dyscalculia for more information. Click on our Learn More button below to watch a short YouTube video about Dyscalulia.

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    Dyscalculia
  • Dyspraxia

    Dyspraxia - (Another name for Apraxia)–impairment of the ability to execute purposeful, voluntary movement. See more information at: Dyspraxia *Also watch the YouTube video concerning Dypraxia.

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    Dyspraxia
  • Echolalia

    The involuntary and usually meaningless repetition of phrases or words just heard. This is a very common occurrence with Autism.

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    Echolalia
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG)

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) The recording of electrical impulses in the brain that can be used to diagnose some neurological conditions, such as those with seizures and Epilepsy which are prevalent with Autism. Note: There are new studies underway to investigate if EEG tests can be used to help identify and diagnoses Autism.

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    Electroencephalogram (EEG)
  • Epilepsy (Seizure Disorder)

    Epilepsy (Seizure Disorder) A condition characterized by sudden, involuntary, usually brief occurrences of altered consciousness, motor activity or both. People with Autism have the comorbid condition of also having Epilepsy, ranging from a prevalence rate of 30% to 50%.

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    Epilepsy (Seizure Disorder)
  • Evaluation Criteria

    Evaluation Criteria- A component of the Individualized Education Plan (IEP) is critical for children on the Autism spectrum. Provides a description of how the results of an IEP will determine the achievement of standard goals. Methods of obtaining the information include teacher observation, interviews with parents, and standardized tests.

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    Evaluation Criteria
  • Executive Function

    Executive function describes how your ability to plan, organize and follow through, as well as the ability to inhibit actions, delay responses, make appropriate choices and to shift one’s attention. These actions may be challenging for those with AUTISM. The attainment of educational or professional goals may be hindered with an executive function weakness. Treatments include Advanced Behavioral Analysis (ABA) techniques and other methods that focus on cognitive abilities and skills.

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    Executive Function
  • Expressive Language

    Expressive Language Nonverbal cues, gestures, facial expressions, broken speech or any type of verbal sounds are universal ways to communicate for those diagnosed with delayed language development or neurological disorders. Speech pathologist, occupational and physical therapist will utilize Assistive and Augmentative Communications (AAC) to meet the needs of individuals with AUTISM.

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    Expressive Language
  • Fine Motor Skills

    Fine motor skills The use of one’s hands, fingers, or wrist for manipulating objects and performing activities may be a deficiency in children with AUTISM. The developmental delay of fine motor skills may be the first concern for parents. Fine motor skills are rated by ability in the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS).

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    Fine Motor Skills
  • Floortime

    Floortime- trademarked proprietary treatment method as well as a philosophy for interaction that involves meeting a child at their current developmental level and building upon their particular set of interests and strengths. One advantage is that floortime exercises can be done at anytime & anywhere.

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    Floortime
  • Fragile X Syndrome

    Fragile X Syndrome: A genetic disorder marked by a large number of “weak arm” (mutations) on the X chromosome. There is a suspected concurrence between Fragile X syndrome and Autism. Studies suggest that 1/3 of those with Fragile X syndrome will have an Autism diagnosis. Fragile X syndrome occurs in about 1 in 4,000 males and 1 in 8,000 females. Please Learn More about Fragile X syndrome by using the button below.

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    Fragile X Syndrome
  • Functional Behavioral Assessment

    Functional Behavioral Assessment A process based largely on observation in which problem behaviors are addressed and analyzed. Causes and functions of the behavior are identified for children with Autism. A simple task may create behavioral problems. Behavior modification techniques are used by therapists and often parents and caregivers are instructed for teaching daily applications to children to improve behavior.

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    Functional Behavioral Assessment
  • Functional Play

    Functional Play- form of play that includes any act involving the conventional use of an object to produce a purposeful outcome.

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    Functional Play
  • Gross Motor Skills

    Gross Motor Skills The use of one’s large muscles to move, such as walking, running, hopping and jumping. Each individual must have the ability to practice, play and develop at their own pace, otherwise, frustration and disappointment may occur. The gross motor skills develop from head to toe. Developmental coordination of fine and/or gross motor skills affects the developmental progression of children with Autism.

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    Gross Motor Skills
  • High-functioning Autism (HFA)

    High-functioning Autism (HFA) Although not officially recognized as a diagnostic category, HFA refers to individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) who have near-average to well above-average cognitive abilities and can communicate through receptive and expressive language.

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    High-functioning Autism (HFA)
  • Hyperlexia

    Hyperlexia- syndrome characterized by an intense fascination with letters or numbers and an advanced reading ability. Hyperlexic children read at levels far beyond those of their age mates and often begin reading at very young ages, sometimes at age two. Between 5-10% of children with autism have been estimated to be hyperlexic.

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    Hyperlexia
  • Hypersensitivity

    Hyper-sensitivity Excessive, often painful reaction to everyday auditory, visual, or ultra-sensitive to touch, clothing, etc. Taste, smell, bright lights, loud noises are other examples of hyper-sensitivity for those with Autism. Not all children with Autism have hyper-sensitivity, but it is also common. Watch this informative video

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    Hypersensitivity
  • Hypertonia

    Hypertonia Increased tension or stiffness in the muscles is often associated with Cerebral Palsy. Untreated hypertonia can lead to loss of function and deformity. Spastic hypertonia can involve uncontrollable muscle spasms. This can include “flapping” and other repetitive motions like rocking. Dystonia hypertonia describes rigidity, which is the involuntary stiffening of muscles. Treatments involve occupational and physical therapy including range of motion and stretching. Drugs such as Diazepam may be prescribed to reduce spasticity.

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    Hypertonia
  • Hyposensitivity

    Hyposensitivity A marked absence of reaction to everyday stimuli. Those with Autism may not react to pain, burns, smell, hot or cold temperatures and other external and internal stimuli.

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    Hyposensitivity
  • Identification Card

    Identification Card This is a great common sense idea to carry or provide anyone affected by Autism. This serves to help notify police, first responders and others to understand some behaviors, actions and other activities are due to being on the spectrum.

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    Identification Card
  • Inclusion

    Inclusion The concept that students with disabilities such as Autism should be integrated with their non-disabled peers, in classrooms, athletics, etc.; sometimes this has also been referred to “mainstreaming”.

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    Inclusion
  • Incontinence

    Incontinence is lack of bladder or bowel control. Comorbid medical conditions such as gastroenterology (GI) issues and conditions ranging from behavioral, gross motor skills, and many side effects that can occur through use of medications.

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    Incontinence
  • Individual Transition Plan (ITP)

    Individual Transition Plan (ITP) A plan to facilitate the transfer of a student from one setting to another, such as a different classroom or school is often used for children with Autism.

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    Individual Transition Plan (ITP)
  • Joint attention

    Joint attention Often children with Autism will not engage by making eye contact with another person or follow one’s gaze to a particular object. Non-verbal cues include pointing and gesturing. These reciprocal observations or lack of sharing a gaze may be the first indication that intervention is crucial for social development. Joint attention and joint engagement improve communication skills for those with ASD.

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    Joint attention
  • Learning Disability

    Learning Disability- Social interaction, behavior and communication challenges the normal educational pathway for students with ASD. Difficulties with listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities are examples of learning disability traits.

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    Learning Disability
  • M-Chat-R (revised)

    M-Chat-R Developed by Dr. Catherine Lord, M-CHAT-R/F (Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers, Revised with Follow-Up) is the most widely recognized and is strongly recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics as an aid in the early screening for Autism in children between 16 and 30 months of age.

    Beyond being a highly-accepted tool parents can use with their child, M-CHAT is also used by pediatricians and other primary care professionals to aid in the early identification of children with Autism. The M-CHAT does not provide a diagnosis, but it can indicate if a child is at risk and should receive further evaluation. The original M-CHAT has been revised and now features the important Follow-up information.

    The primary goal of the M-CHAT is to maximize sensitivity, meaning to detect as many cases of ASD as possible. Therefore, there is a high false-positive rate, meaning that not all children who score at risk will be diagnosed with ASD. To address this, the creators have developed the Follow-Up questions M-CHAT-R/F. Users should be aware that even with the Follow-Up, a significant number of the children who screen positive on the M-CHAT will not be diagnosed with ASD; however, these children are at high risk for other developmental disorders or delays and, therefore, should still be evaluated. Please Watch the VIDEO from M-CHAT.org by clicking on “Learn More”.

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    M-Chat-R (revised)
  • Magnetic Resonant Imaging (MRI)

    Magnetic Resonant Imaging (MRI): is sometimes used as diagnostic scan for measuring the brain size and brain activity for those with Autism.

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    Magnetic Resonant Imaging (MRI)
  • Mainstreaming

    Mainstreaming The concept that students with disabilities such as Autism should be integrated with their non-disabled peers. (Also referred to as “inclusion”).

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    Mainstreaming
  • Melatonin

    Melatonin A naturally occurring hormone secreted by the “pineal” gland. In humans, it likely plays a role in establishing 24-hour (circadian) sleep rhythms. Sleep disturbance, particularly insomnia, is very common in children diagnosed with ASD.

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    Melatonin
  • Mental Age (MA)

    Mental Age (MA) An assessment of intellectual functioning for those with Autism, based on the average standard for children of the same chronological age. Watch the video to learn more

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    Mental Age (MA)
  • Motor planning

    Motor planning- The ability to think through and physically carry out a task. Whereas most children can learn these tasks with relatively few repetitions, children with Autism and sensory processing issues often require an excessive amount of practice to be able to learn these tasks. This is because the ability to motor plan depends on adequate functioning of the sensory systems including the vestibular, tactile, and proprioceptive senses. Without proper functioning of these systems, children have a hard time knowing where their bodies are in relation to other objects in the environment.

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    Motor planning
  • Neuroleptics

    Neuroleptics are any of the powerful tranquilizers (such as the phenothiazines) especially used to treat psychosis and believed to act by blocking dopamine nervous receptors. These types of antipsychotic medications are often prescribed for those with Autism.

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    Neuroleptics
  • Nutrigenomics

    The scientific study of the interaction of nutrition and genes, especially with regard to the prevention or treatment of disease. The increased need for the use of personalized nutrition in patients is increasing and research is being made on its possible effects. However, research on nutrigenomics is still ongoing and not evidence-based.

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    Nutrigenomics
  • Non-Verbal Learning Disability (NVLD)

    Non-Verbal Learning Disability (NVLD) is a neurological condition characterized by strong verbal, memory, and reading skills and weaker visual-spatial, motor, and executive functioning as well as some challenges in social interactions. This is very common with Autism.

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    Non-Verbal Learning Disability (NVLD)
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) In Autism OCD is a common, chronic and long-lasting disorder in which a person has uncontrollable, reoccurring thoughts (obsessions) and behaviors (compulsions) that he or she feels the urge to repeat over and over. OCD can include repetitive movements such as rocking and repeating the same word over and over and so forth.

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    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
  • Off-Label Drug Use (OLDU)

    Drugs approved by the FDA are commonly assigned to a primary clinical treatment of a specific medical condition.

    The most common form of OLDU involves prescribing currently available and marketed medications for another indication (i.e. a disease or a symptom) that has never received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, yet has proved useful in clinical treatments for non-primary conditions.

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    Off-Label Drug Use (OLDU)
  • Oral motor

    Oral motor is a process involving the nerves and muscles in and around the mouth.

    Wrongly used by most speech therapists, oral-motor therapy uses a variety of exercises to develop awareness, strength, coordination and mobility of the oral muscles. For example it may be used to improve muscle tone of the face or to reduce tongue thrust (the protrusion of the tongue from the mouth).

    Oral-motor therapy is often used as a component of feeding therapy. In this case an experienced therapist will be able to determine why a child is having difficulty in a particular area and will create an oral-motor-feeding plan individualized for the child.

    There is no current research to support the use of oral-motor therapy to treat speech disorders. Unfortunately, despite that fact, research shows that 8 out of 10 speech therapists use oral-motor when attempting to treat speech disorders.

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    Oral motor
  • Occupational Therapy (OT)

    Occupational Therapy (OT) Occupational therapy can help children with Autism perform better in school and home environments. Parents who are referred to occupational therapy practitioners often have concerns about the behavioral and social development problems their children with autism display in these environments, and OT practitioners can assist with these issues.

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    Occupational Therapy (OT)
  • PANDAS

    PANDAS is an acronym for Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal infection. It is an autoimmune condition initially triggered by strep infections, which disrupts a child’s normal neurologic activity. PANDAS occurs when the immune system produces antibodies, intended to fight an infection, and instead mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in the child’s brain, resulting in inflammation of the brain (basal ganglia section) and inducing a sudden onset of movement disorders, neuropsychiatric symptoms and abnormal neurologic behaviors. PANDAS is a treatable disorder that occurs seemingly overnight and can cause debilitating symptoms in children and adolescents. The average age of onset is between 4 and 7 years old. Also, it appears to be more common in boys. PANDAS is characterized by an abrupt onset of obsessive-compulsive behaviors (OCD) and/or motor or vocal tics in pre-pubescent children immediately following a group A Strep (GAS) infection. These symptoms are extreme and interfere with a child’s daily life. Unfortunately, children and adolescents suffering from PANDAS often go unrecognized or are misdiagnosed. Medical professionals who are not familiar with this condition may attribute the personality changes to rebellious developmental stages, or even poor parenting. The NIH has reported extensively on PANS: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/news/science-news/2012/possible-causes-of-sudden-onset-ocd-in-kids-broadened.shtml Learn more by watching this Video!

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    PANDAS
  • PANS

    PANS- is an acronym for Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome, which is associated with a variety of different infections. PANS can be triggered by numerous infections, including Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease), mycoplasma pneumonia, herpes simplex, common cold, influenza and other viruses. Parents often describe children with PANS as overcome by a ‘ferocious’ onset of obsessive thoughts, compulsive rituals and overwhelming fears. Clinicians should consider PANS when children or adolescents present with such acute-onset of OCD or eating restrictions. The NIH has reported extensively on PANS: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/news/science-news/2012/possible-causes-of-sudden-onset-ocd-in-kids-broadened.shtml

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    PANS
  • PDD-NOS (Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not otherwise specified)

    PDD-NOS (Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified)

    Used to describe Autism Spectrum Disorders characterized by the presence of some, but not all of the defining symptoms of Autism.

    PDD-NOS is characterized by delays in the development of socialization and communication skills. Parents may notice associated behaviors as early as infancy. These may include delays in using and understanding language, difficulty relating to people, unusual play with toys and other objects, difficulty with changes in routine or surroundings and repetitive body movements or behavior patterns.

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    PDD-NOS (Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not otherwise specified)
  • PECS (Picture Exchange Communication System)

    PECS (Picture Exchange Communication System) A means by which people use pictures to communicate their interests, needs, and spontaneous thoughts, ask and answer questions and schedule activities.

    People using PECS are taught to approach another person and give them a picture of a desired item in exchange for that item. By doing so, the person is able to initiate communication.

    There have now been several studies that have shown PECS actually helps people develop verbal language, can decrease tantrums and odd behaviors and allows for increased socialization. The use of tables, i-pads, flashcards, etc. are being used to assist children with Autism learn through PECS.

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    PECS (Picture Exchange Communication System)
  • Performance I. Q.

    Performance I.Q. The score derived from various non-verbal tests, such as visual-spatial activities and object assembly.

    Children with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may have limitations that can hinder them from achieving their maximum potential, if not given the appropriate education, therapies and care that best suit them.

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    Performance I. Q.
  • Personalized Medicine (Precision Medicine)

    Tailoring clinical treatments to an individual’s personal characteristics and specific needs of a patient during all stages of care, including prevention, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up.

    A simple example of personalized medicine is “providing the right patient with the right drug at the right dose at the right time.”

    “Precision medicine” is sometimes used interchangeably with “personalized medicine”.

    **Please click on learn more for a Mayo Clinic overview.

    Important Note: Please visit OnlyYOU™ AUTISM sections on our Autism Community Info and Facts and Stats pages by using the navigation tools at bottom of this page. Be sure and watch our many very informative videos on “Personalized/Precision Medicine”.

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    Personalized Medicine (Precision Medicine)
  • Pharmacogenomics (PGx)

    Pharmacogenomics (Abbreviation is “PGx”) is the identification of genetic variations and their association with variations in drug treatment response. The term is derived from the combination of the words “Pharma” (pharmaceutical) and “Genomes” (your personal genes).

    [OnlyYOU™ Autism is a PHARMACOGENOMICS company. We measure and analyze many genes and variants and report on large amounts of genomes that are personal and relevant just for you.]

    For Autism, since every person has their very own set of genes and variations of genes, our OnlyYOU™ Pharmacogenomic tests are used to measure these gene variants. The results of each personalized test help identify the medications and doses that may be the most effective for each person tested.

    Using life sciences and molecular technologies, “Pharmacogenomics” measures many of your specific genes and your personal variants (alleles) to determine your individual metabolism for prescription drugs and medications.

    Please click on “Learn More” button to view a Mayo Clinic video that will help to educate you about PGx.

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    Pharmacogenomics (PGx)
  • Placebo

    Placebo A “dummy” medication (“sugar pill”) having no specific activity or action in the body. With a pill taken by mouth (orally), for example, the placebo is a pill identical in appearance to the pill with the active medicine. Subjects are given a placebo to test for the psychological aspects of giving the medicine—that is, some people complain of side effects (nausea, headache) and even improve with a placebo. Watch the video to learn more about placebos.

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    Placebo
  • Poly-Pharmacy

    Poly-pharmacy

    The simultaneous use of multiple drugs to treat a single ailment or condition and the simultaneous use of multiple drugs by a single patient, for one or more conditions.

    Clinicians have access to an armamentarium of more than 10,000 prescription medications, and nearly one-third of adults in the United States take 5 or more medications.

    Individuals with Autism are often “poly-pharmacy” being prescribed and using four to twelve different medications that involve behavioral and comorbid medical conditions. The OnlyYOU™ AUTISM test covers the top ten (20) behavioral drugs and includes 145 total medications covering 27 medical conditions.

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    Poly-Pharmacy
  • Patient Portal

    Your test results will be filed in our fully secured, encrypted HIPAA compliant “portal” on our OnlyYOU™ website. (Accessible only to account holders with your username and a passcode for your individual account.) You can save and print your reports. You can also share your results reports with your healthcare professionals and any others you choose by using your OnlyYOU™ HIPAA protected portal.

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    Patient Portal
  • Prevalence

    Prevalence: is the percentage of a population that is affected with a specific disease at a given time. Prevalence also means when diseases and chronic medical conditions occur at much higher frequency than the majority of the population.

    94% of people with an Autism diagnosis also have prevalent chronic medical conditions at much higher rates than others without Autism.

    Please visit OnlyYOU’s AUTISM SCIENCE PAGES TO LEARN MORE ABOUT PREVALENT MEDICAL CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH AUTISM.

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    Prevalence
  • Pivotal Response Training

    Pivotal Response Training Based on the Autism principles of Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA), Pivotal Response Training (PRT) focuses on motivation and responsivity as the most important features of intervention. It is more child-directed than traditional ABA/Discrete Trial Therapy and specifically targets social behaviors, such as turn-taking, making choices and play skills. Tailored to each child’s individual needs, PRT is effective at promoting language development increasing socialization and decreasing disruptive behaviors in children with Autism.

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    Pivotal Response Training
  • Psychosis (Psychotic, Anti-psychotic)

    Psychosis (Psychotic, Anti-psychotic): is a severe mental disorder in which thought and emotions are so impaired that contact is lost with external reality. Up to 80% of children with ASD experience the symptoms of psychotic behavior.

    Behavioral medications are often prescribed to manage psychosis/psychotic conditions along with psychiatric counseling, ABA and CBT therapies as important parts of clinical treatments.

    WATCH THE VIDEO

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    Psychosis (Psychotic, Anti-psychotic)
  • Public Law 94 -142

    Public Law 94-142 The Education of All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, ratified again in 2004, providing a “free, appropriate public education” for all children with disabilities, including Autism.

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    Public Law 94 -142
  • Reactive Attachment Disorder

    Reactive Attachment Disorder: is a disorder of childhood or infancy characterized by the failure of the child to develop normal social relatedness prior to the age of five. The disorder is marked either by persistent failure of the child to initiate or respond appropriately to social interactions or (in older children) the inability to understand socially acceptable or inappropriate behaviors especially with strangers.

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    Reactive Attachment Disorder
  • Receptive Language Disorders

    Receptive Language Disorders is the comprehension of spoken and written communication and gestures. Students with a receptive language disorder have problems understanding oral language or in listening. They may have difficulties processing and retaining auditory information, and in following instructions and directions. Difficulties understanding what is said may be exacerbated in group discussions. Watch the Video

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    Receptive Language Disorders
  • Regression

    Regression is the loss of skills that have already been learned is not uncommon with Autism. Regression may occur at any age and is sometimes provoked by change of environment (moving, trips, vacations, etc.), and change of school, such as leaving home and going to college. Individuals with AUTISM may experience sensory overload which leads to regression.

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    Regression
  • Respite Care

    Respite Care Care provided by an individual or institution to a child with AUTISM so that the primary caretakers, usually the parents, can have a break. Sometimes respite care is funded by state agencies. Research indicates parents and caregivers who take a break (respite) for as a little as an hour a week, improve the care they provide and relationships with others.

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    Respite Care
  • Rett's Disorder

    Rett’s Disorder is no longer an Autism Spectrum Disorder specific condition. It is a severe genetic condition, classified by loss of social interest, receptive and expressive language, and motor skills.

    Deceleration of head growth between ages 5 and 48 months may occur. Rett’s Disorder is much more prevalent in girls.

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    Rett's Disorder
  • Rx

    The abbreviation for “Prescription Drug” is commonly referred to as a “Rx”.

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    Rx
  • Savant

    Savant- person with Autism who is exceptionally gifted in a specialized field. A common misconception is that the “autistic savant” phenomenon is extremely common among autistic people, when in reality, its relevance ranges between 1% and 10% of the autistic population. Many savants work in the computer programming and coding industry.

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    Savant
  • Schizophrenia

    Schizophrenia is a long-term mental disorder of a type involving a breakdown in the relation between thought, emotion, and behavior, leading to faulty perception, inappropriate actions and feelings, withdrawal from reality and personal relationships into fantasy and delusion, and a sense of mental fragmentation. Schizophrenia affects only about 2% of children and it is often misdiagnosed for those who have autism. Watch the Video to Learn More! https://youtu.be/BIligWBtJus Best VIDEO

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    Schizophrenia
  • Seizure

    Seizure Involuntary movement or changes in consciousness brought by bursts of electrical activity in the brain, most commonly associated with epilepsy. Thirty to fifty percent of those with Autism may suffer from seizures.

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    Seizure
  • Self-help skills

    Self-help skills Daily skills for those with Autism may include self-feeding, dressing, bathing, and other tasks that are necessary to maintain health and well-being. Watch the video!

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    Self-help skills
  • Self-stimulatory behaviors

    Self-stimulatory behaviors is also called “stereotypy” or “stimming” and may be present in both autistic and neuro-typical individuals. These behaviors may include repetitive body movements, such as flapping arms or rocking back and forth, or the repetitive movements of objects, using toys, various objects they routinely select, or opening and closing doors. Repetitive sounds may also take place, such as grunts, sighing, or repeating the same words over and over.

    Treatment for such behavior is provided by Occupational Therapists or by ABA (Applied Behavioral Analysis) technicians. Watch this video to learn more!

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    Self-stimulatory behaviors
  • Self-Injurious Behavior

    Self-Injurious Behavior- Any behavior, initiated by the individual, which directly results in physical harm to that individual. Physical harm includes bruising, lacerations, bleeding, bone fractures and breakages, and other tissue damage. Many individuals who have autism engage in self-injurious behavior that can include head banging, hand or arm biting, hair pulling, slapping, skin picking and head shaking.

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    Self-Injurious Behavior
  • Sensitivity

    The frequency with which a test yields a true positive result among individuals who actually have the disease or the gene mutation in question. A test with high sensitivity has a low false-negative rate and thus does a good job of correctly identifying affected individuals.

    A common trait of Autism is Hyper-Sensitivity in which sounds and noises, sensitivity to lights and touching, etc. are greatly amplified.

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    Sensitivity
  • Sensorimotor

    Sensorimotor Activities that involve learning through movement and the senses and include physical reflexes and cognitive skills. The first stage of their development is referred to as the sensorimotor stage. This stage begins at birth and lasts through 24 months of age.

    After an infant has reached the age of 24 months, he or she moves into the pre-operational stage, which is from 24 months old through the age of 7. When the child reaches the age of 7, he or she enters the concrete operational stage, which spans from 7 to 12 years old. When a child hits the age of adolescence, he or she moves into the final stage of development, known as the formal operational stage, which spans adolescence through adulthood.

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    Sensorimotor
  • Sensory Integration Therapy

    Sensory Integration Therapy A therapeutic approach that incorporates the use of sensory materials and physical input in order to help children with AUTISM increase focus, regulate moods and tolerate frustration and environmental change as well as reduce negative reactions to stimuli, such as noise, crowded spaces or textures of food or fabric. Watch this fun Video to learn more about Sensory Integration

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    Sensory Integration Therapy
  • Side Effect

    Side effects, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the purpose intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
    Occasionally, drugs are prescribed or procedures performed specifically for their side effects; in that case, said side effect ceases to be a side effect, and is now an intended effect.

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    Side Effect
  • Somnolence

    Somnolence: is a state of sleepiness where you’re close to falling asleep, and may not be able to resist the urge to doze off. As someone in treatment for bipolar disorder or another mental illness, this can affect you since many psychiatric medications (and many non-psychiatric medications, too) can cause somnolence.

    Sometimes called “Daytime Sleepiness”, it can make people feel compelled to nap repeatedly during the day, often at inappropriate times such as at work, during a meal, or in conversation. These daytime naps usually provide no relief from symptoms. Somnolence is a medical term, but there are many other terms for the same state of sleepiness including drowsiness, lethargic, insensible and just plain sleepy.

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    Somnolence
  • Sensory Processing Disorder

    Sensory processing disorder (SPD) is a neurological condition that interferes with the body’s ability to receive messages from the senses, and convert those messages into appropriate motor and behavioral responses. It inhibits a person’s ability to filter out unimportant sensory information, like the background noise in a bustling café, making them feel overwhelmed and over-stimulated in certain environments.

    SPD also interferes with the body’s ability to process and act on information received by sight, sound, touch, smell, and taste.

    Watch a SPD VIDEO by clicking on “Learn More”

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    Sensory Processing Disorder
  • Special Education (SPED)

    Special Education (SPED) Specialized and personalized instruction of a disabled child, designed in response to educational disabilities determined by an evaluation. Special education services pick up where early intervention services leave off, at age 3.

    Your local school district provides these services through their special education departments. The focus of special education is different from that of early intervention. While early intervention addresses your child’s overall development, special education focuses on providing your child with an education, regardless of disabilities or special needs.

    How your child’s needs will be met is a vital part of the Individualized Education Program (IEP).

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    Special Education (SPED)
  • Stereotypies

    Stereotypies (Stimming) are repetitive movements such as rocking and arm flapping and can include using repetitive words. ABA therapies, OT (occupational therapy) and drug treatments may be used to help control or eliminate these types of repetition. Watch the Video for examples and to learn more.

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    Stereotypies
  • Supported employment

    Supported employment is work done by people with AUTISM who have cognitive, physical, or emotional challenges involving an adapted environment or additional support staff. Watch VIDEO by clicking on LEARN MORE.

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    Supported employment
  • Syndrome

    Syndrome describes a group of symptoms or traits that indicate a particular condition or disorder. “Autism is often referred to as being a syndrome” and may include social, communication, and behavioral challenges. These problems can be mild, severe, or somewhere in between.

    Early diagnosis is important, because early treatment can make a big difference.

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    Syndrome
  • Tactile defensiveness (Hypersensitivity)

    Tactile defensiveness (Hyper-sensitivity) Extreme physical sensitivity to certain textures and sensations. Children with Autism often have tactile defensiveness (hyper-sensitivity to touch/tactile input) and will avoid touching, become fearful of, or bothered by all types of external stimuli that affect their hands, feet or skin. Aversion to clothing tags, rough fabric clothing, seams on one’s socks, and even the wind blowing can be extremely upsetting.

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    Tactile defensiveness (Hypersensitivity)
  • Theory of Mind

    Theory of Mind-The ability to attribute mental states—beliefs, intents, desires, pretending, knowledge, etc.—to oneself and others and to understand that others have beliefs, desires and intentions that are different from one’s own. individuals with autism are thought to have impairments in theory of mind.

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    Theory of Mind
  • Tic Disorders

    Tic Disorders- uncontrollable habitual spasmodic quick motion of particular muscles, especially of the face.

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    Tic Disorders
  • Tourette syndrome

    Tourette syndrome (TICS) is an inherited neurological disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by the presence of multiple physical (motor) tics and at least one vocal tic; these tics characteristically wax and wane. Tourette is co-morbid with Autism affecting 35% of children with ASD and the Asperger syndrome. People that have Tourette have “Tics” (movements or sounds that the person cannot easily control). Tourette is normally inherited and starts in childhood.

    Watch the very Informative Video by clicking on “Learn More”.

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    Tourette syndrome
  • Verbal I.Q.

    Verbal I.Q. The comprehensive evaluation for Autism is critical since a basic IQ score may be skewed due to verbal comprehension or verbal IQ. It is not uncommon for nonverbal children with AUTISM to have a high IQ. Various measurements during the evaluation involve verbal tasks, understanding written material and answering general knowledge questions. Assistive and Augmentative Communications (AAC) such as flashcards, I-pads, etc. may be used for tests and assessments.

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    Verbal I.Q.
  • Visual Spatial Skills

    Visual Spatial Skills The weakness or strength in visual spatial skills varies due to multiple dimensions such as nonlinear, sequential, shapes, colors and pictures. Non-verbal individuals with Autism may have high visual spatial skills with an extremely high IQ.

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    Visual Spatial Skills
  • Whole-genome Sequencing

    A laboratory process that is used to determine nearly all of the approximately 3 billion nucleotides of an individual’s complete DNA sequence, including non-coding sequence.

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    Whole-genome Sequencing
 

DNA Terms


  • Base Pair

    Two nucleotides on complimentary DNA strands. Human DNA consists of about 3 billion base pairs, and more than 99% of those are the same in all people. The order, or sequence, of these base pairs determines the information available for building and maintaining an organism.

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    Base Pair
  • Chromosomes

    A single strand of tightly coiled DNA that reside in pairs within the nucleus. Humans have 22 autosomal chromosomes (named as 1 to 22) and two sex chromosomes, X and Y.

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    Chromosomes
  • Cytochrome P450

    These are drug-metabolizing enzymes, commonly known as CYP which are found in the liver and are responsible for the metabolism of a large number of pharmaceutical compounds.

    Expression of each CYP is influenced by a unique combination of mechanisms and factors including genetic polymorphisms, induction by xenobiotics, regulation by cytokines, hormones and during disease states, as well as sex, age, and others. Multiallelic genetic polymorphisms, which strongly depend on ethnicity, play a major role for the function of CYPs and leading to distinct pharmacogenomic phenotypes termed as poor, intermediate, extensive, and ultra-rapid metabolizers.

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    Cytochrome P450
  • Deletion

    Occurs when one or more nucleotide pairs are lost from a DNA molecule.

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    Deletion
  • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

    Consists of nucleotides that reside in sequence along a backbone of deoxyribose sugar and phosphates. DNA contains the genetic instructions that lead to development and function of individuals.

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    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
  • Duplication

    The presence of an extra segment of DNA, resulting in redundant copies of a portion of a gene, an entire gene, or a series of genes.

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    Duplication
  • Enzyme Inhibitor

    A molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.

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    Enzyme Inhibitor
  • Enzyme

    A biological catalyst, usually a protein, which speeds up the rate of a specific chemical reaction. The body contains thousands of different enzyme molecules, each specific to a particular chemical reaction.

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    Enzyme
  • Epigenetics

    The study of heritable changes that do not affect the DNA sequence but influence gene expression. There are many scientific studies concerning Epigenetics and Autism.

    We recommend an excellent source to keep up with such studies: “The Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative” (SFRAI). Please consider signing up for their free online publication at https://spectrumnews.org/about/

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    Epigenetics
  • Exons

    Entrons-The expressed portion of a gene, exons contain the DNA sequences that are converted to mRNA during transcription, and thus by way of the genetic code, determine the amino acid sequence in the protein product.Entrons code for proteins.

    A nucleotide sequence that is found in a gene, codes information for protein synthesis, which is transcribed to messenger RNA. Exons can influence DNA variants (alleles) which help determine your genetic responses to medications.

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    Exons
  • Genetic Counseling

    **Genetic Counseling- is performed by using a counseling process that seeks to assist affected or at-risk individuals and families in understanding the natural history, disease risks, and mode of transmission of a genetic disorder; to facilitate informed consent for genetic testing when appropriate; to discuss options for risk management and family planning; and to provide for or refer individuals for psychosocial support as needed.

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    Genetic Counseling
  • Genetic Counselor

    Genetic counselor- is a designation in which a highly trained professional answers questions from patients or relatives, about genetics and genomics. Genetic conseling is also used to help educate people at risk of an inherited disorder and are advised of the consequences and nature of the disorder, the probability of developing or transmitting it, and the options open to them in management and family planning. Genetic counselors can also help patients and physicians understand how genetics and genomics work in individuals and their metabolic responses to medications.

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    Genetic Counselor
  • Genetics

    Refers to the study of Genes and their roles in inheritance - in other words, the way that certain traits or conditions are passed down from one generation to another. Genetics involves scientific studies of genes and their effects. Genes (units of heredity) carry the instructions for making proteins, which direct the activities of cells and functions of the body, including your individual metabolism for drugs.

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    Genetics
  • Genome

    Genomes- are the sets of all genes that specify traits in an individual. A genome is an organism’s complete set of genetic instructions. Each genome contains all of the information needed to build that organism and allow it to grow and develop.

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    Genome
  • Haplotype

    A haplotype is a group of genes within an organism that was inherited together from a single parent. The word “haplotype” is derived from the word “haploid,” which describes cells with only one set of chromosomes, and from the word “genotype,” which refers to the genetic makeup of an organism.

    Since we inherit two copies of each gene, one from each of our parents, each person will have a combination of haplotypes or alleles, written as two numbers, each preceded by a star with a slash in between. For example, someone who inherited the 3 allele from their mother and the *2 allele from their father would have the *2/3 combination or “2/3 star genotype”.

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    Haplotype
  • Heterozygosity

    When two different alleles are present on the chromosome pair.

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    Heterozygosity
  • Homozygosity

    When two identical alleles are present on the chromosome pair.

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    Homozygosity
  • Inducers

    Inducer- is a type of drug that increases the metabolic activity of a medication either by binding to an enzyme and activating it, or by increasing the expression of the gene coding for the medication’s enzymes. Inducers are the opposite of an Inhibitor which can slow down or stop the therapeutic effects of other medications.

    Note: Your OnlyYOU® Test Results Report includes valuable information showing which medications are known inhibitors, matched to your individual pharmacogenomic responses.

    Watch the short Movie to learn more about Inducers.

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    Inducers
  • Inhibitor

    Inhibitors- drugs can interact with other prescription medications and prevent them from doing their jobs. Drug Inhibitors can cause lowered or lack of drug efficacy (effectiveness), create potential adverse reactions, etc. Drug inhibition can occur when you take more than one prescription at a time. Think of an drug inhibitor as a drug’s way of saying “Slow down!” or “Stop!”

    All OnlyYOU® Test Reports list potential Drug Inhibitors and are Personalized for you based on your pharmacogenomic test results.

    Please watch the short YouTube movie to learn more about Inhibitors.

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    Inhibitor
  • Introns

    Introns- a segment of a DNA or RNA molecule that does not code for proteins and interrupts the sequence of genes. Introns are the opposite of Exons). Introns can influence DNA variants (alleles) which help determine your genetic responses to medications.

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    Introns
  • Locus

    The physical site or location of a specific gene on a chromosome.

    A locus (plural loci) in genetics is the position on a chromosome. Each chromosome carries many genes; humans estimated haploid protein coding genes are 19,000-20,000, on the 23 different chromosomes. A variant of the similar DNA sequence located at a given locus is called an “allele”.

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    Locus
  • Metabolic Pathways

    In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.

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    Metabolic Pathways
  • Mode of Action (mechanism of action)

    A specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect.

    A drug’s MOA may refer to its biological activity such as cell growth, or its interaction and modulation of its direct biomolecular target, for example a protein or nucleic acid. It usually includes mention of the specific molecular targets to which the drug binds, such as an enzyme or receptor.

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    Mode of Action (mechanism of action)
  • Mutation

    Any change in the nucleotide base sequence of a gene. Mutations are a key mechanism to evolution through their detrimental or advantageous effect on the fitness of the organism.

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    Mutation
  • Nucleotide

    Subunit of DNA consisting of a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a deoxyribose sugar.

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    Nucleotide
  • Phenotype

    The observable characteristics of an individual, such as body or tissue structure, behavior, or other measurable traits. The phenotype results from the expression of that individual’s genes and their interaction with environmental and internal factors.

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    Phenotype
  • Receptor

    In biochemistry, a protein molecule that receives and responds to a neurotransmitter, or other substance.

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    Receptor
  • RNA

    RNA– Ribonucleic Acid is one of the three major biological macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life (along with DNA and proteins).can also act as enzymes (called “ribozymes”) to speed chemical reactions. In a number of clinically important viruses RNA, rather than DNA, carries the viral genetic information. RNA also plays an important role in regulating cellular processes–from cell division, differentiation and growth to cell aging and death. Defects in certain RNAs or the regulation of RNAs have been implicated in a number of important human diseases, including heart disease, some cancers, stroke and many others.

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    RNA
 

Pharmacogenomics


  • Adverse Reaction (ADE)

    An Adverse Drug Event (ADE) is defined as harm experienced by a patient as a result of exposure, misuse, bad dosing, or allergic reaction to a medication. ADEs account for over 700,000 hospitalizations, 4 million emergency room or urgent care visits and over 100,000 deaths each year. ADEs affect nearly 5% of hospitalized patients.

    Clinicians have access to an armamentarium of more than 10,000 prescription medications, and nearly one-third of adults in the United States take 5 or more medications.

    In pharmacology, ADE’s are defined as unexpected or dangerous reactions to a drug. These unwanted effects caused by the administration of a drug may begin at the onset of the medication being taken or an adverse reaction may develop over time and can take place by introduction of new prescriptions.

    Those diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder, have comorbid conditions that increases the number of medications taken.

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    Adverse Reaction (ADE)
  • Allele

    Allele is the variant forms of a gene with one of two or more forms in a single gene. Each person inherits two alleles for each gene, one from each parent.

    Since alleles are the variant forms of a gene, these variations are the reason we are all different from each other.

    Alleles have a variety of different forms, which are located at the same position on a chromosome. These differences in variations, named SNP’s, control an individual’s speed of metabolism and reactions to medications.

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    Allele
  • Assay

    The procedure for measuring the biochemical or immunological activity of a sample.

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    Assay
  • Drug Inducer

    Drug Inducer- is a type of drug that increases the metabolic activity of a medication either by binding to an enzyme and activating it, or by increasing the expression of the gene coding for the medication’s enzymes. Inducers are the opposite of an inhibitor which can slow down or stop the therapeutic effects of other medications.

    ® Note: Your OnlyYOU Test Results Report includes valuable information showing which medications are known inducers, matched to your individual pharmacogenomic responses.

    Watch the short YouTube Movie to learn more about Inducers.

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    Drug Inducer
  • Drug Inhibitor

    Drug Inhibitors- Prescription medications can interact with each other to prevent them from doing their jobs. Drug inhibitors can lower or remove the drug efficacy of the medication itself (effectiveness) or another medication and may also create potential adverse reactions, etc.

    Drug-to-Drug inhibitors may happen when different medications are taken simultaneously.

    Think of a drug inhibitor as the drug’s way of saying “Slow down!” or “Stop!”

    Note: All Test Reports comprehensively lists the potential Drug Inhibitors and inducers and are Personalized for you based on your pharmacogenomic PGx test results.

    Please watch the short YouTube movie to learn more about drug inhibitors.

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  • Drug Response

    Reaction of the body to an administered drug. It is affected by many factors, including genetic makeup, which controls your drug metabolism, age, body size, the use of other drugs and dietary supplements (such as medicinal herbs, the consumption of food (including beverages), the presence of diseases (such as kidney or liver disease), and the development of tolerance and resistance.

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    Drug Response
  • Endogenous

    If your doctor says your sickness is ‘endogenous’, he means that whatever’s wrong with you went wrong inside your body, and wasn’t caused by anything you can catch, like a virus. Endogenous is a fancy term for anything “that originates internally”.

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    Endogenous
  • Evidence Based

    The approach to medical practice intended to optimize decision-making by emphasizing the use of solid factual evidence from well-designed and published scientific medical research.

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    Evidence Based
  • Family History

    The genetic relationships within a family combined with the medical history of individual family members, including older generations. When represented in diagram form using standardized symbols and terminology, it is usually referred to as a pedigree or family tree. Also called “family medical history”.

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    Family History
  • Gene

    The physical and functional unit of DNA that controls your metabolism and utilization of drugs. Genes contain the instructions that help determine how the body develops and how it functions. 93% of people have gene variation.

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    Gene
  • Genetic Testing

    Genetic testing designed for Pharmacogenomic testing is used to measure a drug’s metabolism and responses by each individual who is tested. Genetic testing may identify individuals in a given population who are at higher risk of having or developing a particular disorder, or carrying a gene for a particular disorder. Genetic testing usually involves testing one specific gene and its many variants. Genomic Testing utilizes many genes and their associated variants.

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    Genetic Testing
  • Genomics

    Genomics means to utilize the analysis of many genes, and their variants; the study of genes and their functions, and related influences. Genomics addresses multiple genes and their inter-relationships in order to identify their combined effects on each individual person.

    Genetics is the study of heredity; scrutinizes the functioning and composition of the single gene.

    OnlyYOU™AUTISM is Genomics-focused utilizing Pharmacogenomics testing to measure and analyze multiple genes and their variants that control your personal metabolism and effectiveness of pharmaceuticals.

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    Genomics
  • Genotype

    Genotype Broadly, an individual’s collection of genes. In Pharmacogenomics, the genotype is a particular DNA composition within a gene of interest. Its expression contributes to the individual’s observable traits, called a phenotype.

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    Genotype
  • Genotypic Screening

    Genotypic Screening Testing that reveals the specific alleles (SNP’s) inherited by an individual.

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    Genotypic Screening
  • Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA)

    Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPPA) refers to the United States legislation that provides data privacy and security provisions for safeguarding medical information. OnlyYOU® is 100% compliant with HIPPA guidelines, including all of our HIPPA Business Associates. HIPPA laws and guidelines are administered by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Office for Civil Rights (OCR).

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    Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA)
  • Informational

    Some drugs are not metabolically measurable, but vital information about a certain drug can prove to be extremely valuable. Learn about documented drug interactions, inhibitors, and potential adverse reactions and toxicities with pharmacogenomics testing.

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    Informational
  • Informed Consent

    Means that a physician (or other medical provider) must tell a patient all of the potential benefits, risks, and alternatives involved in any surgical procedure, medical procedure, or other course of treatment, and must obtain the patient’s written consent to proceed.

    The concept is based on the principle that a physician has a duty to disclose information to the patient so he or she can make a reasonable decision regarding treatment. The process of information exchange between a clinician and parents, guardian, or their legal proxy is designed to facilitate autonomous, informed decision making.

    An informed consent process should include an explanation of the medical and psychosocial risks, benefits, limitations, and potential implications of clinical treatments, prescription medications, and a discussion of privacy, confidentiality, the documentation and handling of medical records, and options for managing Autism and other health issues.

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    Informed Consent
  • Interactions

    In medicine, most medications can be safely used with other medicines, but particular combinations of medicines need to be monitored for interactions, often by the pharmacist. Interactions between medications (drug interactions) fall generally into one of two main categories:

    1. “pharmacodynamic” which involves the actions of the two interacting drugs, and/or
    2. “pharmacokinetic” which involves the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of one or both of the interacting drugs upon the other.

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    Interactions
  • Label Recommendation

    All medicines are required to meet the labeling requirements of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

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    Label Recommendation
  • Median Effective Dose

    The dose required to achieve 50% of the desired response in 50% of the population.

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    Median Effective Dose
  • Metabolic

    Metabolic describes the whole range of biochemical processes that occur within us. Metabolic actions consist of the chemical buildup of substances and the breakdown of and utilization of substances in our body.

    Prescription drugs are primarily metabolized in the liver, where specific genes are involved in metabolizing the pharmaceutical medications.

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    Metabolic
  • Metabolism

    The rate at which prescription drugs are broken down, assimilated and the components of medical compounds of the drug utilized by an individual. Every individual has different rates of metabolism due to your personal gene variants.

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    Metabolism
  • Pharmacodynamics

    The branch of pharmacology concerned with the effects of drugs and the mechanism of their action. In simple words, this is how a drug interacts with your body.

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    Pharmacodynamics
  • Pharmacogenomics (PGx)

    Pharmacogenomics (Abbreviation is “PGx”) is the identification of a genetic variations and their collective association with variations in drug treatment response. The term is derived from the combination of the words “ Pharma” (pharmaceutical) and “Genomics” (your personal genes).

    Using life sciences and molecular technologies, Pharmacogenomics measures many groups of specific genes and the variants for those genes (alleles/ SNP’s) to determine your individual metabolism for a prescription drug and medication.

    Please click on “Learn More” button to view the Mayo Clinic video that will help to educate you about PGx.

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    Pharmacogenomics (PGx)
  • Pharmacogenomic Test

    An assay used to study inter-individual variations in whole genome or specific gene, single nucleotide polymorphism maps, haplotype markers, or alterations in gene expression or inactivation that may be correlated with pharmacological function and therapeutic response. In some cases, the pattern or profile of change is the relevant biomarker, rather than changes in individual markers.

    Pharmacogenomic testing provides information about a patient’s likelihood to have an adverse response and/or a therapeutic response to many prescription drugs enabling the potential for a tailored and personalized approach to medication therapy.

    The primary focus of Pharmacogenomic Testing has been on improving drug selection and dosing for individuals.

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    Pharmacogenomic Test
  • Pharmacokinetics

    The branch of pharmacology concerned with the movement of drugs within the body. This includes absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of bioactive drugs following their administration to the individual. In simple words, pharmacokinetics is what your body does to a drug.

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    Pharmacokinetics
  • Pharmacology

    Branch of medicine concerned with study of medicines and drugs, including their origin, action, use, and their effects on the body, including therapeutic and toxic effect. The Doctor of Pharmacy degree,Pharm.D. is a prerequisite requirement before the North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination.

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    Pharmacology
  • Pharmacovigilance

    Pharmacovigilance (PV)-also known as drug safety - is a broad term that describes the collection, analysis, monitoring and prevention of adverse effects in drugs and therapies. It is a completely scientific and process-driven area within the pharma industry. OnlyYOU® AUTISM’s operating principles include being pro-actively pharmacovigilent! Watch the Video in Learn More.

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    Pharmacovigilance
  • Polymorphism

    Polymorphisms - occur when A variant that has two or more alleles and is present at a frequency of at least 1% of the population. Polymorphisms are useful for genetic linkage analysis such as those used in Pharmacogenomics. Polymorphisms may be expressed as SNP’s (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) See below for more inforamtion on SNP’s

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    Polymorphism
  • Precision Medicine Initiative = "All of Us"

    President Obama announced the Precision Medicine Initiative® (PMI). This has now been renamed “All of Us”. Through advances in research, technology and policies that empower patients, “All of Us” will enable a new era of medicine in which researchers, providers and patients work together to develop individualized care.

    The budget now includes $215 million in fiscal year 2016 and beyond to support the Initiative, which includes several components with efforts from across the federal government. Of this total proposed budget, $130 million was allocated to NIH to build a national, large-scale research participant group, called a “cohort” of 1 million people will be pharmacogenomically tested by the end of 2018

    Watch VIDEO by clicking on “Learn More”

    More information:

    Watch the VIDEO

     

    Precision Medicine Initiative =
  • Precision Medicine

    National Institutes of Health (NIH) definition of Precision Medicine: “The emerging approach for disease prevention and treatment that takes into account people’s individual variations in genes, environment, and lifestyle”. It is often interchangeably used with “personalized medicine”. Use the Link below to learn more

    More information:

    'NIH Link--plus.OnlyYOU™ is the first step to precision medicine/ personalized medicine)''

     

    Precision Medicine
  • Sequencing

    The laboratory technique that determines the exact sequence of nucleotide bases in a DNA molecule. DNA sequence information is used to study how variations in genotypes impact gene function. DNA sequencing has become faster and cheaper since the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2000, when the first human genome was sequenced.

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    Sequencing
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)

    SNP–Pronounced “snip,” is a single nucleotide locus with two or more naturally occurring alleles defined by a single base pair substitution. (SNP) Used to define the variants of genes. Your personal variants (SNP’s) control your metabolism and responses to medications and are measured by Pharamcogenomic Testing.

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    Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)
  • Swab

    An absorbent pad used to take a specimen of your saliva for examination. (Looks like a big Q-tip!) Swab the inside of each cheek for 15 seconds to ensure good collection of your saliva.

     

    Swab
  • Toxicity

    The level of poison contained in a drug, or the ability of a drug to poison the body.

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    Toxicity
  • Trial and Error

    Trial and error is a fundamental method of problem solving. It is characterized by repeated, varied attempts which are continued until success or failure is concluded.

    Medical schools teach trial and error methodologies of beginning drug treatments with the smallest dosage first. Testing follows to determine how the doses work. If results are not successful then increased doses over time are prescribed, tested, and determined if effective.

    If no efficacy (success) is evident, medical students are taught to then try other medications.

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    Trial and Error
  • Variants

    Variants impact the utilization and speed in which drugs are metabolized by an individual. Genetic variation results in different forms, or alleles, of genes. Genetic variation describes the variation in the DNA sequence in each of our genomes. Individuals have similar characteristics but they are rarely identical, the difference between them is called “variation”. 93% of people have many gene variations.

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    Variants
 

Regulatory Organizations


  • ABAI

    Association for Behavioral Analysis International (ABAI)-Since 1974, the Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI) has been the primary membership organization for those interested in the philosophy, science, application, and teaching of behavior analysis. The ABAI organization provides many educational and professional services to its members. ABAI serves as the official Accreditation Board for those pursuing professional careers in Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA).

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    ABAI
  • ADA

    American with Disabilities Act (ADA) This federal law that guarantees equal opportunity for people with disabilities in employment, public accommodation, transportation, government services and telecommunications. People with an Autism diagnosis are normally covered by ADA laws.

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    ADA
  • AOTA

    American Occupational Therapists Association (AOTA)

    Professional organization whose members help provide occupational therapy to children with Autism to improve their social and physical skills.The AOTA is an excellent resource for learning more about Autism and how Occupational Therapy (OT) can help those with Autism in a large variety of ways.

    More information:

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    AOTA
  • Association of Professional Behavior Analysis

    Association of Professional Behavior Analysts (APBA) is a 501(c)(6) nonprofit organization whose mission is to promote and advance the science-based practice of applied behavior analysis. ABA therapies are recognized for the most evidenced-based treatments for those with an Autism Diagnosis.

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    Association of Professional Behavior Analysis
  • CAP

    College of American Pathologists (CAP) - College of American Pathologists Laboratory Accreditation Program accredits the entire spectrum of laboratory test disciplines with the most scientifically rigorous customized checklist requirements. CAP provides a unique balance of regulatory and educational coaching supported by the most respected worldwide pathology organization. The Laboratory Accreditation Program inspects a variety of laboratory settings from complex university medical centers to diagnostic healthcare laboratories, and covers a complete array of disciplines and testing procedures, including pharmacogenomics. Our OnlyYOU™ pharmacogenomics test lab is fully accredited by the CAP.

    More information:

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    CAP
  • CDC

    The Center for Disease Control is an excellent resource for those that wish to learn more about Autism.

    More information:

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    CDC
  • CLIA

    Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA), established quality standards for all laboratory testing to ensure the accuracy, reliability and timeliness of patient test results regardless of where the test was performed. The FDA and CDC use and endorse CLIA guidelines for labs to be certificated for testing human samples.

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    Did you know OnlyYou lab is CLIA certified?

     

    CLIA
  • FDA

    Food and Drug Administration Operated by the US government to test and provide guidelines and set rigid standards for all food, pharmaceuticals, testing, labeling, etc. to protect consumers.

    **Please use the link to read about the FDA’s many Warnings and Dangers about “Alternative” Autism therapies and clinical treatments.

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    FDA
  • GINA

    Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act created by the United States Congress to prohibit the use of genetic information in health insurance and employment. The Act prohibits group health plans and health insurers from denying coverage to a healthy individual or charging that person higher premiums based solely on a genetic predisposition to developing a disease in the future. The legislation also bars employers from using individuals’ genetic information when making hiring, firing, job placement, or promotion decisions including those with Autism.

    More information:

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    GINA
  • HIPAA

    HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996) refers to the United States legislation that provides data privacy and security provisions for safeguarding medical information.

    OnlyYOU™ is 100% compliant with HIPPA guidelines, including all of our HIPPA Business Associates.

    More information:

    OnlyYOU™ is 100% HIPAA compliant

     

    HIPAA
  • HIPAA

    HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act)-is United States legislation (1996)that provides Data Privacy and Security provisions for safeguarding Medical Information. HIPAA guidelines, law and enforcements are controlled by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Office of Civil Rights (OCR). OnlyYOU® strictly follows all HIPAA laws and guidelines. (*Please read our Privacy Policies section 8)

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    HIPAA
  • NIH

    The National Institutes of Health is the leading agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, it is the primary part of the United States government responsible for biomedical and health-related research. The NIH both conducts its own scientific research through its “Intramural Research Program” (IRP) and provides major biomedical research funding to non-NIH research facilities through its “Extramural Research Program”.

    The NIH is a great resource to learn more about Autism.

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    National Institutes of Health

     

    NIH
 

Top 20 Autism Behavioral Drugs


  • NIH is the Source for OnlyYOU®AUTISM'S Top 20 Behavioral Drugs for Autism

    The NIH (National Institutes of Health), an agency of the United States, is our Source for this Top 20 Behavioral Drugs list of the most prescribed and most used to treat the behavioral symptoms for Autism.

    OnlyYOU® AUTISM TESTS and REPORTS ALL 20 OF THESE MEDICATIONS.

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  • Serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI's)

    Serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI’s): A class of drugs used as anti-depressants to increase levels of serotonin in the body by inhibiting its re-uptake in the nerve cell. SSRI are often prescribed initially to avoid adverse reactions from other anti-depressants.

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     Serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI's)
  • Tricyclic Anti-Depressants (TCA's)

    Tricyclic Antidepressants: Any of a group of antidepressant drugs (as imipramine, amitriptyline, desipramine, and nortriptyline) that increase the levels of certain brain chemicals that improve mood and regulate pain signals.

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    Tricyclic Anti-Depressants  (TCA's)
  • Adderall

    Adderall, Adderall XR, Adzenys ER, Dyanavel XR, Mydayis (Amphetamine) The brands for Amphetamine are central nervous system stimulants used to increase concentration and alertness, to decrease impulsiveness and may provide a calming and focusing effect. Adderall is primarily used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Approximately 30% of children with Autism experience ADHD. Adderall may be habit-forming.

    <3 years: Not recommended.

    3 to 5 years: Initial Dose: 2.5 mg once a day orally upon awakening. Maintenance Dose: The daily dosage may be raised in increments of 2.5 mg at weekly intervals until optimal response is obtained. Only in rare cases will it be necessary to exceed a total of 40 mg per day in 2 to 3 divided doses. Give first dose on awakening; additional doses (1 or 2) at intervals of 4 to 6 hours.

    >6 years: Initial Dose: 5 mg once or twice a day orally upon awakening. Maintenance Dose: The daily dosage may be raised in increments of 5 mg at weekly intervals until optimal response is obtained. Only in rare cases will it be necessary to exceed a total of 40 mg per day in 2 to 3 divided doses. Give first dose on awakening; additional doses (1 or 2) at intervals of 4 to 6 hours.

    Extended Release Capsules: <6 years: Not recommended.

    6 to 12 years: Initial Dose: 5 mg to 10 mg once a day orally upon awakening. Maintenance Dose: The daily dosage may be raised in increments of 5 mg to 10 mg at weekly intervals. Maximum Dose: 30 mg once daily upon awakening.

    13 to 17 years: Initial Dose: 10 mg once a day orally upon awakening. Maintenance Dose: The daily dosage may be increased to 20 mg once a day.

    Drugs can interact with Adderall. The list includes: antacids or other stomach acid reducers, such as Nexium, Pepcid, Prilosec, Protonix, Zantac: antidepressants; cold or allergy medicine that contains a decongestant such as pseudoephedrine or phenylephrine; medicine to treat mental illness; or seizure medicines.

    Side Effects: Common side effects of Adderall may include nervousness; dizziness; restlessness; headache; stomach ache; decreased appetite; trouble sleeping; dry mouth; nausea; weight loss; constipation or diarrhea.

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    Adderall
  • Aripiprazole

    Aripiprazole (Abilify, Aristada, Dyanavel XR) has shown to be effective for the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents with autism, and well-tolerated in both children and adolescents. Generally, this drug is used for up to one year and is well-tolerated.

    Doses ranged from 2.5 to 15 mg/day.

    Side effects that led to discontinuation included sedation, hyper-salivation (drooling), aggression, and weight increase.

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    Aripiprazole
  • Atomoxetine

    Atomoxetine (Strattera) is an inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of ADHD in children, adolescents, and adults. The drug is moderately effective in the treatment of hyperactivity, inattention and learning in children and adolescents with ASDs, although adverse effects may limit its use at times.

    Doses range from 1.2 to 1.4 mg/kg/day.

    Side effects were overall mild to moderate and included gastrointestinal symptoms, decreased appetite, irritability, ear ringing, mood swings, sleep problems, and sedation.

    More information:

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    Atomoxetine
  • Citalopram

    Citalopram (Celexa) has limited efficacy in the management of repetitive behaviors in children and adolescents with ASDs, and is more likely to be associated with side effects. It may be beneficial in the treatment of other associated symptoms. *There are currently no published studies of citalopram in adults with ASDs.

    Citalopram may have favorable responses for a range of symptoms, including repetitive behaviors and preoccupations, aggression, anxiety, and disturbed mood.

    Dosages range from 5 to 40 mg/day.

    Side events may include increased energy, impulsiveness, decreased concentration, hyperactivity, stereotypy, diarrhea, insomnia, or dry or itchy skin (“pruritic”).

    More information:

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    Citalopram
  • Clomipramine

    Clomipramine (Anafranil, Clomicalm) has been shown to be effective for the treatment of repetitive behaviors in some individuals with ASDs, and may be helpful for aggression and hyperactivity, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and impulsive behavior. Many children and adolescents, may experience significant adverse effects from this medication.

    Dosages range from 75 to 250 mg/day and are sometimes divided.

    Side effects include sleep disturbances, dry mouth, constipation, fatigue or lethargy, dystonia, depression, and seizures.

    More information:

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    Clomipramine
  • Clonidine

    Clonidine (Catapres, Duraclon, Kapvay) is moderately effective in treating hyperactivity and irritability in children with ASDs. Clonidine may be helpful for sleep initiation and maintenance, specifically for reducing sleep initiation latency (SOL) which is the length of time that it takes to accomplish the transition from full wakefulness to sleep, and to prevent night awakening, hyperactivity and irritability.

    Doses range from 0.1 to 0.2 mg/day.

    Side effects may include drowsiness, sedation, and decreased activity.

    More information:

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    Clonidine
  • Clozapine

    Clozapine (Clozaril, Denzapine, FazaClo, and Zaponex) was the first atypical antipsychotic to be released in the US. Studies in children, adolescents, and adults with autism suggest good tolerability and effective management of severe aggression and irritability. It is used to decrease aggression, and often leads to a reduction in the number of psychotropic drugs.

    Doses range from 200 to 475 mg/day and adverse effects are minimal. Side effects included constipation and weight gain.

    [Note: This drug carries the increased risk of agranulocytosis (lowers the white blood cell count) and has the potential to lower the seizure threshold, making its use limited in ASDs.]

    More information:

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    Clozapine
  • Diazepam

    Diazepam (Dextrostat, Diastat, Diastat Pediatric, Dizac, D-Val, Valium, Valrelease, Zetran)

    Valium is the common brand name for Diazepam, an anti-anxiety agent, anti-convulsant, spasms, sedation and muscle relaxant. According to instructions from the manufacturers: Note: Valium is very habit-forming and can cause dependence in only 2 weeks. Valium should not be taken for more than 4 weeks.

    Diazepam is frequently used as an anti-seizure medication, and it has been approved for anxiety in children as young as 6 months and commonly used to treat anxiety disorders. They are sometimes used for adjunct treatment of bipolar mania and to treat catatonia. This drug may be more likely to cause “paradoxical disinhibition” which is characterized by acute excitement and an altered mental state in children compared to adults, especially in children with autism spectrum disorders and developmental delay.

    Doses range: for 6 mo-12 years are 0.12-0.8 mg/day and may be divided. For 13 years and older: Dose ranges 2-10 mg.

    Major Side Effects may include shakiness and unsteady walk, trembling, or other problems with muscle control or coordination and sleepiness.

    More information:

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    Diazepam
  • Escitalopram

    Escitalopram (Lexapro, Cipralex)

    Studies of escitalopram have found some benefit in children and adolescents with ASDs, although dose-related adverse effects may limit its use. *There are currently no published studies of escitalopram in adults with ASDs. Improvements may include reductions of Irritability, Lethargy, Stereotypy, Hyperactivity, and Inappropriate Speech.

    Dosages range from 10 to 20 mg/day.

    Side effects may include irritability and hyperactivity and are known to increase with higher doses.

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    Escitalopram
  • Fluoxetine

    Fluoxetine (Prozac, Rapiflux, Reconcile, Sarafem, Selfemra)

    Larger studies of fluoxetine have not found it to be effective in the treatment of repetitive behaviors in children. The drug has proven to be more effective in adults and adolescents with autism. Adults show reductions in repetitive behaviors, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and temper outbursts with fluoxetine. The Study of Fluoxetine in Autism (SOFIA), the largest double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of an SRI in children with autism to date, concluded that fluoxetine is not effective for the treatment of repetitive behaviors in children.

    Fluoxetine normal doses are 20 to 80 mg/day.

    Side effects may include hypomania (irritability or euphoria), and increased aggression.

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    Fluoxetine
  • Fluvoxamine

    Fluvoxamine (Luvox, Luvox CR) has proven to be minimally effective and may be poorly tolerated in children and adolescents with ASDs, although it has been found to be efficacious in the management of repetitive behaviors, maladaptive behaviors, and aggression in some adults with autism.

    Doses for children range from 25 to 250 mg/day with some side effects. For adults, doses ranged from 50 to 300 mg/day and fluvoxamine was overall well-tolerated by adults.

    Side effects in children may include insomnia, aggression, increased rituals, anxiety, anorexia, increased appetite, irritability, decreased concentration, and increased impulsivity.

    Children with autism, aged 3 to 8 years, have shown only a 20% rate of response to this drug.

    Adults aged 18 to 53 years reveal a 53% response rate with reductions in repetitive thoughts and behavior, maladaptive behavior, and aggression.

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    Fluvoxamine
  • Haloperidol

    Haloperidol (Haldol)

    In children and adolescents, haloperidol has been demonstrated to be efficacious in the short and long-term treatment of symptoms associated with autism. In adults, haloperidol is superior to clomipramine in the management of irritability. Older children respond more favorably to haloperidol compared with younger children.

    It has shown effective in reducing repetitive movements such as rocking and arm flapping (“stereotypies”), social withdrawal and improved orientation and decreased maladaptive behaviors such as irritability, mood swings and uncooperativeness.

    Doses range between 0.5 to 4.0 mg per day.

    Haloperidol is generally well tolerated.

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    Haloperidol
  • Lisdexamfetamine

    Lisdexamfetamine (VyVanse) is a federally controlled substance (Class II) because it can be abused or lead to dependence. Vyvanse® (lisdexamfetamine dimesylate), a stimulant prescription medicine used for the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism in patients 6 years and above, and for the treatment of moderate to severe binge eating disorder (B.E.D.) in adults. Vyvanse is not for weight loss. It is not known if Vyvanse is safe and effective for the treatment of obesity.

    Do not use Vyvanse if your child has: • taken an anti-depression medicine called a “monoamine” within the past 14 days • Or, had a reaction to other stimulant medicines.

    Doses: The recommended starting dose for Vyvanse (lisdexamfetamine dimesylate) is 30 mg once daily. The range for doses is 30 to 70mg per day.

    Side effects of Vyvanse may include: • Anxiety, shortness of breath • chest pain • decreased appetite • diarrhea • dizziness, fainting • dry mouth • irritability • loss of appetite • nausea • trouble sleeping • upper stomach pain • vomiting • weight loss [Vyvanse may cause your child to experience slowing of growth (height and weight)].

    Tell your doctor if you or your child have mental problems, or a family history of suicide, bipolar illness, or depression. This is important because new or worsening behavior and thought problems or bipolar illness may occur. Loss of feeling may occur in hands, fingers, feet, toes and other extremities.

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    Lisdexamfetamine
  • Methylphenidate

    Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta, Daytrana, Medikinet, Metadate, Methylin, and Aptensio) is a central nervous system stimulant. It affects chemicals in the brain and nerves that contribute to hyperactivity and impulse control. Ritalin is also used to treat attention deficit disorder (ADD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and narcolepsy.

    *Note: You should not use Ritalin if you have a personal or family history of tics (muscle twitches) or Tourette’s syndrome; or severe anxiety, tension, or agitation (stimulant medicine may make these symptoms worse).

    Doses: Children (6 years and over) Ritalin should be initiated in small doses, with gradual weekly increments. Daily dosage above 60 mg is not recommended. If improvement is not observed after appropriate dosage adjustment over a 1-month period, the drug should be discontinued. Most recommendations start doses at 5 mg twice daily (before breakfast and lunch) with gradual increments of 5 to 10 mg weekly.

    Side Effects may include fast heartbeat, chest pain, fever, joint pain, skin rash or hives, gastrointestinal issues, headaches and trouble sleeping.

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a psychostimulant that is moderately effective in the treatment of hyperactivity in children with ASDs, but its use may be limited by adverse effects.

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    Methylphenidate
  • Mirtazapine

    Mirtazapine (Remeron)

    This antidepressant may be somewhat effective in managing some symptoms associated with autism, including inappropriate sexual behaviors and improvements in aggression, SIB (self-injurious behavior), irritability, hyperactivity, anxiety, depression, and insomnia.

    Doses range from 7.5 to 45 mg/day.

    Side effects may include increased appetite, weight gain, and sedation.

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    Mirtazapine
  • Olanzapine

    Olanzapine (Zyprexa) is moderately effective in children with ASDs and has demonstrated some effectiveness in adults, but the side effects of increased appetite, weight gain, and sedation are very common.

    Olanzapine has demonstrated improvements in motor restlessness or hyperactivity, social relatedness, affectual reactions, sensory responses, language usage, SIB, aggression, irritability or anger, anxiety, and depression, but have shown no changes in reduction of repetitive behaviors.

    Doses range from 2.5 to 20 mg/day.

    Side effects of increased appetite, weight gain, sedation, and loss of strength are very common.

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    Olanzapine
  • Paliperidone

    Paliperidone (Invega) may be effective in children, adolescents, and adults with ASDs, although studies are limited. It has been demonstrated that significant improvements in irritability and aggression may occur.

    Dosages ranged from 6 to 12 mg/day.

    Side effects may include increased appetites and weight gain.

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    Paliperidone
  • Pimozide

    Pimozide (Orap) may be helpful in the management of sleep and excretion disorders (kidney function), and management of behavioral disturbances in children with autism. *There are no published reports of Pimozide for adults with ASDs.

    Dosages of Pimozide range from 1 to 9 mg/day.

    Side effects include drowsiness or sleepiness.

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    Pimozide
  • Risperidone

    Risperidone (Risperdal) has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of irritability in children, adolescents, and adults with ASDs and ADD and ADHD. Risperidone treatment coupled with parent management training was also found to reduce irritability, stereotypic behavior, and hyperactivity/noncompliance more effectively than risperidone monotherapy (using only the drug alone) in children and is used to reduce aggression, irritability, repetitive behaviors, anxiety or nervousness, and depression.

    Doses range from 1 to 10 mg/day, sometimes in divided doses.

    Side effects included mild, transient sedation, increased appetite, and weight gain.

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    Risperidone
  • Sertraline

    Sertraline (Zoloft) is moderately effective and relatively well-tolerated in the management of repetitive behaviors and aggression in adults with ASDs. There is minimal data in children to draw definitive conclusions, although adverse effects in children may be greater with the use of sertraline.

    Dosages in children range from 25 to 50 mg/day with worsening of behavior above 75 mg/day. Adults tolerated 25 to 200 mg/day.

    Side effects are minimal, with the most common being weight gain and anxiety or agitation.

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    Sertraline
  • Venlafaxine

    Venlafaxine (Effexor, Effexor XR) is a combined serotonin and norepinephrine inhibitor, has been found somewhat effective in children, adolescents, and adults with ASDs. Improvements may include reduction in repetitive behaviors and interests, social deficits, communication, inattention, and hyperactivity.

    Dosages of venlafaxine range from 6.25 to 50 mg/day.

    Side effects may include behavioral over-activation, inattention, excessive urination (“polyuria”), and nausea.

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    Venlafaxine